Dimension Reduction by Balanced Truncation: Application to Light-Induced Control of Open Quantum Systems
Boris Schäfer-Bung, Carsten Hartmann, Burkhard Schmidt, and Christof Schütte
In linear control theory, balanced truncation is known as a powerful technique to reduce the state-space dimension of a system. Its basic principle is to identify a subspace of jointly easily controllable and observable states and then to restrict the dynamics to this subspace without changing the overall response of the system. This work deals with a first application of balanced truncation to the control of open quantum systems which are modeled by the Liouville-von Neumann equation within the Lindblad formalism. One difficulty is that the equations involve bilinear terms due to the coupling between the control and the quantum field which require certain generalizations of the linear theory. As an example we choose the dissipative quantum dynamics of a particle in an asymmetric double well potential driven by an external control field, monitoring population transfer between the potential wells as a control target. The accuracy of dimension reduction is investigated by comparing the populations obtained for the truncated system versus those for the original system. The dimension of the model system can be reduced very efficiently where the degree of reduction depends on temperature and relaxation rate.