WavePacket: A Matlab Package for Numerical Quantum Dynamics. III: Quantum-Classical Simulations and Surface Hopping Trajectories
Burkhard Schmidt, Rupert Klein, and Leonardo Cancissu Araujo
WavePacket is an open-source program package for numerical simulations in quantum dynamics. It can solve time-independent or time-dependent linear Schrödinger and Liouville-von Neumann-equations in one or more dimensions. Also coupled equations can be treated, which allows, e.g., to simulate molecular quantum dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Optionally accounting for the interaction with external electric fields within the semi-classical dipole approximation, WavePacket can be used to simulate experiments involving tailored light pulses in photo-induced physics or chemistry. Being highly versatile and offering visualization of quantum dynamics 'on the fly', WavePacket is well suited for teaching or research projects in atomic, molecular and optical physics as well as in physical or theoretical chemistry.
Building on the previous Part I [Comp. Phys. Comm. 213, 223-234 (2017)] and Part II [Comp. Phys. Comm. 228, 229-244 (2018)] which dealt with quantum dynamics of closed and open systems, respectively, the present Part III adds fully classical and mixed quantum-classical propagations to WavePacket. In those simulations classical phase-space densities are sampled by trajectories which follow (diabatic or adiabatic) potential energy surfaces. In the vicinity of (genuine or avoided) intersections of those surfaces, trajectories may switch between them. To model these transitions, two classes of stochastic algorithms have been implemented: (1) J. C. Tully's fewest switches surface hopping and (2) Landau-Zener based single switch surface hopping. The latter one offers the advantage of being based on adiabatic energy gaps only, thus not requiring non-adiabatic coupling information any more.
The present work describes the MATLAB version of WavePacket 6.1.0 which is essentially an object-oriented rewrite of previous versions, allowing to perform fully classical, quantum-classical and quantum-mechanical simulations on an equal footing, i.e., for the same physical system described by the same WavePacket input. The software package is hosted and further developed at the Sourceforge platform, where also extensive Wiki-documentation as well as numerous worked-out demonstration examples with animated graphics are available.